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Complete list of technical publications, Nickolas M. Waser, February 2001

Journal articles

1971. Feldman, J. F. and N. M. Waser. New mutations affecting circadian rhythmicity in Neurospora. In: Biochronometry, M. Menaker, ed., N.A.S., Washington, D.C., pp. 652-656.

1972. Borbély, A. A., I. Baumann and N. M. Waser. Multichannel telemetry of physiological parameters (body temperature EKG, EEG) in the rat. II. Applications in neuropharmacology. In: Biotelemetry, Kimmich and Vos, eds., Meander N. V., Leiden, Netherlands pp. 381-388.

1975. Waser, N. M. and W. A. Calder. Possible impairment of nest-building of hummingbirds by acetate leg-tags. Condor 77:361.

1976. Waser, N. M. Food supply and nest timing of broad-tailed hummingbirds in the Rocky Mountains. Condor 78:133-135.

1977. Waser, N. M. and D. W. Inouye. Implications of recaptures of broad-tailed hummingbirds banded in Colorado. Auk 94:393-395.

1978. Waser, N. M. Interspecific pollen transfer and competition between co-occuring plant species. Oecologia 36:223-236.

1978. Waser, N. M. Competition for hummingbird pollination and sequential flowering in two Colorado wildflowers. Ecology 59:934-944.

1979. Waser, N. M. Pollinator availability as a determinant of flowering time in ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens). Oecologia 39:107-121.

1979. Price, M. V. and N. M. Waser. Pollen dispersal and optimal outcrossing in Delphinium nelsonii. Nature 277:294-297.

(10)  1979. Waser, N. M. and L. A. Real. Effective mutualism between sequentially flowering plant species. Nature 281:670-672.

1981. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. Pollinator choice and stabilizing selection for flower color in Delphinium nelsonii. Evolution 35:376-390.

1981. Pyke, G. H. and N. M. Waser. The production of dilute nectars by hummingbird and honeyeater flowers. Biotropica 13:260-270.

1982. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. Effects of grazing on diversity of annual plants in the Sonoran Desert. Oecologia 50:407-411.

1982. Price, M. V. and N. M. Waser. Population structure, frequency-dependent selection, and the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Evolution 36:35-43.

1982. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. A comparison of pollen and fluorescent dye carryover by natural pollinators of Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae). Ecology 63:1168-1172.

1982. Waser, N. M., R. K. Vickery, Jr., and M. V. Price. Patterns of seed dispersal and population differentiation in Mimulus guttatus. Evolution 36:753-761.

1982. Price, M. V. and N. M. Waser. Experimental studies of pollen carryover: Hummingbirds and Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 54:353-358.

1982. Waser, N. M. A comparison of distances flown by different visitors to flowers of the same species. Oecologia 55:251-257.

1983. Calder, W. A., N. M. Waser, S. M. Hiebert, D. W. Inouye, and S. Miller. Site-fidelity, longevity, and population dynamics of broad-tailed hummingbirds: A ten-year study. Oecologia 56:359-364.

(20)   1983. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. Pollinator behaviour and natural selection for flower colour in Delphinium nelsonii. Nature 302:422-424.

1983. Waser, N. M. Competition for pollination and floral character differences among sympatric plant species: A review of evidence. In: Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology, eds. C. E. Jones and R. J. Little, Van Nostrand Reinhold, N.Y., pp. 277-293.

1983. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. Optimal and actual outcrossing in plants, and the nature of plant-pollinator interaction. In: Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology, eds. C. E. Jones and R. J. Little, Van Nostrand Reinhold, N.Y., pp. 341-359.

1983. Waser, N. M. The adaptive nature of floral traits: Ideas and evidence. In: Pollination Biology, ed. L. A. Real, Academic Press, New York, pp. 241-285.

1984. Waser, N. M. Pollen Shortcomings. Natural History 93:26-31.

1984. Waser, N. M. Sex ratio variation in populations of a dioecious desert perennial, Simmondsia chinensis. Oikos 42:343-348.

1984. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. Experimental studies of pollen carryover: Effects of floral variability in Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 62:262-268.

1984. Price, M. V., N. M. Waser, and T. A. Bass. Effects of moonlight on desert rodent microhabitat use. Journal of Mammalogy 65:353-356.

1984. Price, M. V. and N. M. Waser. On the relative abundance of species: Post-fire changes in a coastal sage rodent community. Ecology 65:1161-1169.

1985. Price, M. V. and N. M. Waser. Microhabitat use by heteromyid rodents: Effects of artificial seed patches. Ecology 66:211-219.

(30)   1985. Kohn, J. R. and N. M. Waser. The effect of Delphinium nelsonii pollen on seed set in Ipomopsis aggregata, a competitor for hummingbird pollination. American Journal of Botany 72:1144-1148.

1985. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. The effect of nectar guides on pollinator preference: Experimental studies with a montane herb. Oecologia 67:121-126.

1985. Pleasants, J. M. and N. M. Waser. Bumblebee foraging at a "hummingbird" flower: Reward economics and floral choice. American Midland Naturalist 114:283-291.

1985. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. Reciprocal transplant experiments with Delphinium nelsonii (Ranunculaceae): Evidence for local adaptation. American Journal of Botany 72:1726-1732.

1986. Waser, N. M. Flower constancy: Definition, cause and measurement. American Naturalist 127:593-603.

1986. Thomson, J. D., M. V. Price, N. M. Waser and D. A. Stratton. Comparative studies of pollen and fluorescent dye transport by bumble bees visiting Erythronium grandiflorum. Oecologia 69:561-566.

1986. Waser, N. M. and M. L. Fugate. Pollen precedence and stigma closure: A mechanism of competition for pollination between Delphinium nelsonii and Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 70:523-527.

1987. Waser, N. M. Spatial genetic heterogeneity in a population of the montane perennial plant Delphinium nelsonii. Heredity 58:249-256.

1987. Campbell, D. R. and N. M. Waser. The evolution of plant mating systems: Multilocus simulations of pollen dispersal. American Naturalist 129:593-609.

1987. Waser, N. M. Research in plant evolution at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory. Evolutionary Trends in Plants 1:1-3.

(40)   1987. Waser, N. M., M. V. Price, A. M. Montalvo, R. N. Gray. Female mate choice in a perennial herbaceous wildflower, Delphinium nelsonii. Evolutionary Trends in Plants 1:29-33.

1988. Waser, N. M. Comparative pollen and dye transfer by pollinators of Delphinium nelsonii. Functional Ecology 2:41-48.

1989. Waser, N. M., and M. V. Price. Optimal outcrossing in Ipomopsis aggregata: Seed set and offspring fitness. Evolution 43:1097-1109.

1989. Lyons, E. E., N. M. Waser, M. V. Price, J. Antonovics, and A. F. Motten. Sources of variation in plant reproductive success, and implications for concepts of sexual selection. American Naturalist 134:409-433.

1989. Campbell, D. R., and N. M. Waser. Variation in pollen flow within and among populations of Ipomopsis aggregata. Evolution 43:1444-1455.

1990. Waser, N. M., and R. J. Mitchell. Nectar volumes in Delphinium nelsonii: Spatial autocorrelation among plants? Ecology 71:116-123.

1990. Waser, N. M., and M. V. Price. Pollination efficiency and effectiveness of bumble bees and hummingbirds visiting Delphinium nelsonii. Collectanea Botanica (Barcelona) 19:9-20.

1991. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. Outcrossing distance effects in Delphinium nelsonii: Pollen loads, pollen tubes, and seed set. Ecology 72:171-179.

1991. Inouye, D.W., W. A. Calder, and N. M. Waser. The effect of floral abundance on feeder censuses of hummingbird abundance. Condor 93:279-285.

1991. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. Reproductive costs of self-pollination in Ipomopsis aggregata: Are ovules usurped? American Journal of Botany 78:1036-1043.

(50)   1991. Campbell, D. R., N. M. Waser, M. V. Price, E. A. Lynch, and R. J. Mitchell. Components of phenotypic selection: Pollen export and flower corolla width in Ipomopsis aggregata. Evolution. 45:1458-1467.

1992. Mitchell, R. J. and N. M. Waser. Adaptive significance of Ipomopsis aggregata nectar production: Pollination success of single flowers. Ecology 73:633-638.

1992. de Jong, T., N. M. Waser, M. V. Price, and R. M. Ring. Plant size, geitonogamy, and seed set in Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 89:310-315.

1992. Waser, N. M., M. V. Price, and R. I. Bertin. Cross-pollination. Nature 356:667-668.

1992. Waser, N. M., M. V. Price, and R. K. Grosberg. Writing an effective manuscript review. BioScience 42:621-623. (Theis paper was reprinted with minor revisions in Plant Science Bulletin 40:38-41, 1994. and in the American Society of Horticultural Science Newsletter 10:4-5, 1994)

1993. Waser, N. M. Sex, mating systems, inbreeding, and outbreeding. In The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding, Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, ed. N. W. Thornhill, Univ. Chicago Press, pp. 1-13.

1993. Waser, N. M. Population structure, optimal outbreeding, and assortative mating in angiosperms. In The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding, Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, ed. N. W. Thornhill, Univ. Chicago Press, pp. 173-199.

1993. Mitchell, R., D. Bleakly, R. Cabin, R. Chan, B. Enquist, A. Evans, T. Lowrey, D. Marshall, S. Reed, C. Stevens, and N. M. Waser. Species concepts. Nature 364:20.

1993. Waser, N. M., and M. V. Price. Specialisation and generalisation in pollination systems. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Pollination in Tropics, eds. G. K. Veeresh, R. Uma Shaanker and K. N. Ganeshaiah, International Union for the Study of Social Insects, Indian Chapter, Bangalore, pp. 165-169.

1993. de Jong, T. J., N. M. Waser, and P. G. L. Klinkhamer. Geitonogamy: the neglected side of selfing. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8:321-325.

(60)   1993. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. Crossing distance effects on prezygotic performance in plants: an argument for female choice. Oikos 68:303-308.

1994. Shaw, R. G. and N. M. Waser. Quantitative genetic interpretations of postpollination reproductive traits in plants. American Naturalist 143:617-635.

1994. Price, M. V., Goldingay, R. L., Szychowski, L. S., and N. M. Waser. Managing habitat for the endangered Stephens' kangaroo rat (Dipodomys stephensi): effects of shrub removal. American Midland Naturalist 131:9-16.

1994. Campbell, D. R., N. M. Waser, and M. V. Price. Indirect selection of stigma position in Ipomopsis aggregata via a genetically correlated trait. Evolution 48:55-68.

1994. Dukas, R. and N. M. Waser. Categorization of food types enhances foraging performance of bumble bees. Animal Behaviour 48:1001-1006.

1994. Waser, N. M., and M. V. Price. Crossing distance effects in Delphinium nelsonii: outbreeding and inbreeding depression in progeny fitness. Evolution 48:842-852.

1994. Morris, W. F., M. V. Price, N. M. Waser, J. D. Thomson, B. Thomson, and D. Stratton. Systematic increase in pollen carryover and its consequences for geitonogamy in plant populations. Oikos 71:431-440.

1995. Waser, N. M., R. G. Shaw, and M. V. Price. Seed set and seed mass in Ipomopsis aggregata: Variance partitioning and inferences about postpollination selection. Evolution 49:80-88.

1995. Price, M. V., N. M. Waser. K. E. Taylor, and K. L. Pluff. Fire as a management tool for Stephens' kangaroo rat and other small mammal species. In Brushfires in California Wildlands: Ecology and Resource Management, eds. J. E. Keeley and T. Scott, International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, WA, pp. 51-61.

1995. Brody, A. K., and N. M. Waser. Oviposition patterns and larval success of a pre-dispersal seed predator attacking two confamilial host plants. Oikos 74:447-452.

(70)   1996. Waser, N. M., L. Chittka, M. V. Price, N. Williams, and J. Ollerton. Generalization in pollination systems, and why it matters. Ecology 77:1043-1060.

1996. Campbell, D. R., N. M Waser, and M. V. Price. Mechanisms of hummingbird-mediated selection for flower width in Ipomopsis aggregata. Ecology 77:1463-1472.

1997.  Campbell, D. R., N. M. Waser, and E. J. Meléndez-Ackerman. Analyzing pollinator-mediated selection in a plant hybrid zone: hummingbird visitation patterns on three spatial scales. American Naturalist 149:295-315.

1997. Chittka, L. and N. M. Waser. Why red flowers are not invisible to bees. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 45:169-183.

1997. Meléndez-Ackerman, E. J., D. R. Campbell, and N. M. Waser. Hummingbird behavior and mechanisms of selection on flower color in Ipomopsis. Ecology 78:2532-2541.

1998. Mitchell, R. J., R. G. Shaw, and N. M. Waser. Pollinator selection, quantitative genetics, and predicted evolutionary responses of floral traits in Penstemon centranthifolius (Scrophulariaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 159:331-337.

1998. Waser, N. M. Pollination, angiosperm speciation, and the nature of species boundaries. Oikos 82:198-201.

1998. Price, M. V. and N. M. Waser. Effects of experimental warming on plant reproductive phenology in a subalpine meadow. Ecology 79:1261-1271.

1998. Waser, N. M. Task-matching and short-term size shifts in foragers of the harvester ant Messor pergandei. Journal of Insect Behavior 11:451-462.

1998. Waser, N. and L. Chittka. Bedazzled by flowers. Nature 394:836-837.

(80)   1998. Waser, N. M. and J. A. McRobert. Hummingbird foraging at experimental patches of flowers: evidence for weak risk-aversion. Journal of Avian Biology 29:305-313.

1998. Kearns, C. K., D. W. Inouye, and N. M. Waser. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation biology of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29:83-112.

1998. Waser, N. M. and M. V. Price. What plant ecologists can learn from zoology. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 1:137-150.

1998. Campbell, D. R., N. M. Waser, and P. Wolf. Pollen transfer by natural hybrids and parental species in an Ipomopsis hybrid zone. Evolution 52:1602-1611.

1999. Chittka, L., J. D. Thomson, and N. M. Waser. Flower constancy, insect psychology, and plant evolution. Naturwissenschaften 86:361-377.

1999. Bosch, M. and N. M. Waser. Effects of local density on pollination and reproduction in Delphinium nuttallianum and Aconitum columbianum (Ranunculaceae). American Journal of Botany 86:871-879.

1999. Williams, C. F., and N. M. Waser. Spatial genetic structure of Delphinium nuttallianum populations: inferences about gene flow. Heredity 83:541-550.

2000. Price, M. V., N. M. Waser, and S. McDonald. Seed caching by heteromyid rodents from two communities: Implications for coexistence. Journal of Mammalogy 81:97-106.

2000. Waser, N. M., M. V. Price, and R. G. Shaw. Outbreeding depression varies among cohorts of Ipomopsis aggregata planted in nature. Evolution 54:485-491.

2000. Price, M. V. and N. M. Waser. Responses of subalpine meadow vegetation to four years of experimental warming. Ecological Applications 10:811-823.

(90)   2000. Waser, N. M. Pollination by animals. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Macmillan References Ltd., London UK (published October 2000 at

2000. Price, M. V., N. M. Waser, and S. A. McDonald. Elevational distributions of kangaroo rats: long-term trends at a Mojave Desert site. American Midland Naturalist 144:352-361.

2001. Bosch, M. and N. M. Waser. Experimental manipulation of plant density and its effect on pollination and reproduction of two confamilial montane herbs. Oecologia 126:76-83.

In Press

Schulke, B, and N. M. Waser. Long-distance pollinator flights and pollen dispersal between populations of Delphinium nuttallianum. Oecologia. (published online 2 Feb 2001)

Waser, N. M., and C. F. Williams. Inbreeding and outbreeding. In: Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies, eds. C. Fox, D. Roff, D. Fairbairn, Oxford University Press, Oxford UK.

Waser, N. M. Pollinator foraging and plant speciation: looking beyond the "ethological isolation" paradigm. In: Cognitive Ecology of Pollination, eds. L. Chittka and J. D. Thomson, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.

Wolf, P. G., D. R. Campbell, N. M. Waser, S. D. Sipes, T. R. Toler, and J. K. Archibald. Tests of pre- and post-pollination barriers to hybridization between sympatric species of Ipomopsis. American Journal of Botany.

Waser, N. M. and D. R. Campbell. Adaptive speciation in flowering plants. In: Adaptive Speciation, eds. U. Dieckmann, H. Metz, M. Doebeli, and D. Tautz, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Campbell, D. R., and N. M. Waser. Genotype by environment interaction and the fitness of plant hybrids in the wild. Evolution.

Fetscher, A. E., T. Davenport, S. Shafir, A. Dag, N. Waser, and M. L. Arpaia. A review of avocado pollination and the role of pollinators. Subtropical Fruit News.

Book Reviews

1982. Review of "Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological, and Psychological Approaches", eds. A. C. Kamil and T. D. Sargent, Garland Press, 1981. Quarterly Review of Biology 57:350.

1984. Review of "Mate Choice in Plants: Tactics, Mechanisms, and Consequences", by M. F. Willson and N. Burley, Princeton University Press, 1983. Quarterly Review of Biology 59:181.

1989. Review of "Plant Reproductive Ecology: Patterns and Strategies", eds. J. Lovett Doust and L. Lovett Doust, Oxford University Press, 1988. Quarterly Review of Biology 64:197-198.

1992. Price, M. V., and N. M. Waser. Evolutionary ecology by example (review of A. Cockburn, "An Introduction to Evolutionary Ecology"). Ecology 73:2334-2335.

1995. Waser, N. M., and M. V. Price. Demystifying ecological theory (review of N. Gotelli, "A Primer of Ecology"). Ecology 77:657-658.

1997. Waser, N. M. Roots and new shoots of floral ecology (review of D. G. Lloyd and S. C. H. Barrett, eds., "Floral Biology"). Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:40.

2000. Review of "A Primer of Population Genetics, Third Edition" by Daniel L. Hartl. Heredity 85:510.

Technical Reports (non-refereed)

2001. Aigner, P. A. and N. M. Waser. Limits to seed production in Dithyrea maritima: the influence of pollination service, competition for pollination, and clonal population structure. Final Report, D.o.D.. U. S. Navy, Natural Resources Management Branch, Southwest Div., Nav. Fac. Eng. Command, San Diego, California.